Dry unit weight

From TML Testing Wiki
(Redirected from Yd)
Jump to: navigation, search

Dry unit weight (γd) is the dry weight of soil per unit volume. The dry unit weight is usually expressed as kN/m3. Also see bulk unit weight.


The following equation can be used to determine the dry unit weight of a soil or solid bulk cargo:



γd = dry unit weight (kN/m3),
g = acceleration due to gravity (~9.81 m/s2),
Ws = weight of solids,
Vt = total volume,
ρst = specific gravity or particle density (t/m3 or g/cm3) and
e = void ratio.

Typical Values[edit]

Typical values of unit weight for soils are shown below[1].

Soil Type Saturated Unit Weight, γsat (kN/m3) Dry Unit Weight, γd (kN/m3)
Gravel 20-22 15-17
Sand 18-20 13-16
Silt 18-20 14-18
Clay 1622 14-21


  1. Budhu, M. (2011). Soil mechanics and foundations, 3rd edition. New York: Wiley.

See Also[edit]

Share your opinion