Specific gravity

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Specific gravity or Particle Density, abbreviated as ρst or Gs, is the weight of an individual soil particle per unit volume. Specific gravity is commonly expressed in units of grams per cubic centimeter (g/cm3) or tonnes per cubic meter (t/m3), where they are equivalent to one another (i.e. 1 g/cm3 = 1 t/m3). The typical value for soils is 2.65 g/cm3. The Specific gravity is useful for many things including calculating the void ratio and degree of saturation of a material.

Uses[edit]

The specific gravity is used to determine the degree of saturation and void ratio while performing the Proctor/Fagerberg Test[1], Modified Proctor/Fagerberg Test for Coal[2] and Modified Proctor/Fagerberg Test for Iron Ore Fines[3] in order to determine the Transportable Moisture Limit (TML) of the solid bulk cargo being tested.

Equations[edit]

The following equation is used to determine the specific gravity of a material using the weight of solids and volume of solids or net water content by weight, degree of saturation and void ratio:

Specificgravity3.png

Where:

ρst = specific gravity (t/m3),
Vs = volume of solids,
Ws = weight of solids,
S = Degree of Saturation (%),
e = void ratio and
w = net water content by weight (%).


The following equation is used to determine the specific gravity of a material using the gross water content by weight, void ratio and degree of saturation:

Sgequationnew.png

Where:

S = Degree of Saturation (%),
e = void ratio,
w1 = gross water content by weight (%) and
ρst = specific gravity (t/m3).


The following equation is used to determine the void ratio of a material using the dry density and specific gravity:

Pftvoidratio.gif

Where:

e = void ratio,
ρst = specific gravity (t/m3) and
ρd = dry density (t/m3).

Standards[edit]

Some common standards used to determine the specific gravity of soil are:

Typical Values[edit]

Below is a list of the specific gravity for common materials:

Material Specific Gravity (t/m3)
ABS, extrusion grade 1.05[4]
ABS, high impact 1.03[4]
Acetal, 20% glass 1.55[4]
Acetal, copolymer 1.41[4]
Acetyl, homopolymer 1.41[4]
Acrylic 1.19[4]
Alumina 3.4 - 3.6[4]
Aluminum min. 2.55[4]
Aluminum max. 2.8[4]
Aluminum Bronze 7.8[4]
Andesite, solid 2.8[4]
Antimony 6.69[4]
Asbestos, cement board 1.4[4]
Asbestos, mill board 1.0[4]
Asbestos, shredded 0.3 - 0.4[4]
Asbestos, rock 1.6[4]
Asphalt 1.1[4]
Asphaltum 1.4[4]
Azdel 1.19[4]
Bakelite, solid 1.4[4]
Bark 0.25[4]
Barite 4.5[4]
Barium 3.62[4]
Barium sulfate 4.5[4]
Basalt, broken 1.95[4]
Basalt solid 3.0[4]
Beeswax 0.95[4]
Bentonite 2.4[4]
Beryllium 1.85[4]
Bismuth 9.79[4]
Borax min. 1.7[4]
Borax min. 1.8[4]
Boron 2.32[4]
Brass, cast rolled 8.4 - 8.7[4]
Brick, common red 1.75[4]
Brick, fire clay (firebrick) 2.4[4]
Brick, hard 2.0[4]
Brickwork, in cement 1.8[4]
Brickwork, in mortar 1.6[4]
Brickwood, in cement 1.8[4]
Brickwood, in mortar 1.6[4]
Bronze aluminum 7.7[4]
Bronze phosphor 8.88[4]
Bronze, 7.9 - 14% Sn 7.4 - 8.9[4]
Cadmium 8.65[4]
Calcium 4.58[4]
Calcium carbonate 2.7[4]
Carbon, solid 2.1[4]
Carbon, powdered 0.08[4]
Cement 1.2 - 1.5[4]
Cement, Portland (set) 3.1[4]
Cerium 6.77[4]
Cesium 1.873[4]
Chalk 2.3[4]
Charcoal, wood 0.4[4]
Chromium 7.19[4]
Chromium dioxide (Cr203) 5.22[4]
Clay min. 1.8[4]
Clay max. 2.6[4]
Coal, anthracite 1.5[4]
Coal, bitumious 1.2[4]
Coal, slag 2.7[4]
Cobalt 8.71[4]
Concrete, ligth 1.4[4]
Concrete, stone 2.2[4]
Corkboard 0.2[4]
Copper 8.89[4]
CPVC 1.55[4]
Diamond 3.51[4]
Dolomite rock 2.9[4]
Dysprosium 8.55[4]
Earth, dry 1.4[4]
Emery 4.0[4]
Epoxy 1.8[4]
Erbium 9.066[4]
Europium 5.244[4]
Ferrosilicon - 15% 6.7 - 7.1[4]
Fiberboard, ligth 0.24[4]
Fiber hardboard 1.1[4]
Fiber glass sheet 1.87[4]
Flint stones / pebbles 2.4 - 2.6[4]
Gadolinium 7.9[4]
Gallium 5.91[4]
Germanium 5.32[4]
German silver 8.58[4]
Glass min. 2.4[4]
Glass max. 2.8[4]
Glass beads 2.5[4]
Glass crystal min. 2.9[4]
Glass crystal max. 3.0[4]
Glass plate min. 2.45[4]
Glass plate max. 2.72[4]
Gold, 22 carat fine1) 17.5[4]
Gold, pure 19.32[4]
Gold, US coin1) 17.18 - 17.2[4]
Granite min. 2.4[4]
Graphite 2.07[4]
Gypsum, solid 2.8[4]
Gypsum, board 0.8[4]
Hafnium 13.31[4]
Hairfelt 0.1[4]
Hematite 5.2[4]
Holmium 8.795[4]
Hornblende 3[4]
Ice (0oC, 32oF) 0.92[4]
Ilmenite 4.5 - 5.0[4]
Indium 7.31[4]
Iodine 4.93[4]
Iridium min. 21.78[4]
Iridium max. 22.42[4]
Iron cast min. 7.03[4]
Iron cast max. 7.13[4]
Iron carbonate 3.9 +[4]
Iron Ore Fines 3.7 - 4.3[5]
Iron slag 2.7[4]
Iron wrought min. 7.6[4]
Iron wrought max. 7.9[4]
Lanthanum 6.17[4]
Leather, dry 0.9[4]
Limestone min. 2.1[4]
Limestone max. 2.86[4]
Lead 11.35[4]
Lead ore, galena 7.3 - 7.6[4]
Lead oxide (yellow) 9.5 - 9.9[4]
Leather 0.95[4]
Limestone 2.6[4]
Lithium 0.53[4]
Lutetium 9.84[4]
Magnesite 3[4]
Magnetite 3.2[4]
Manganese 7.21 - 7.44[4]
Manganese ore, pyrolusite 3.7 - 4.6[4]
Magnesium 1.738[4]
Marble min. 2.6[4]
Marble max. 2.86[4]
Masonry 2.4[4]
Mercury 13.534[4]
Mica 2.7[4]
Mineral wool blanket 0.1[4]
Molybdenum 10.22[4]
Monel metal, rolled 8.97[4]
Mortar 1.5[4]
Mullite beads 2.8[4]
Neodymium 7[4]
Nickel 8.9[4]
Niobium (Columbium) 8.57[4]
Nylon 6 Cast 1.16[4]
Nylon 6/6, Cast 1.3[4]
Nylon 6/6, Extruded 1.14[4]
Nylon 60L, Cast 1.16[4]
Oak, red 0.7[4]
Osmium 22.57[4]
Paper 0.9[4]
Palladium 12.02[4]
Paraffin wax 0.9[4]
PET, unfilled 1.36[4]
Phenolics 1.38[4]
Phosphorus 1.8[4]
Plaster, light 0.7[4]
Plaster, sand 1.8[4]
Plaster of Paris 1.8[4]
Plastics, foamed 0.2[4]
Plastics, solid 1.2[4]
Platinum 21.45[4]
Plutonium 19.84[4]
Polycarbonate 1.19[4]
Polyethylene, HD 0.97[4]
Polyethylene, UHMW 0.94[4]
Polyethermide 1.27[4]
Polyphenylene Sulfide 1.3[4]
Polymethylpentene 0.83[4]
Polymid, unfilled 1.41[4]
Polypropylene 0.91[4]
Polysulfone 1.25[4]
Polyurethane 1.05[4]
Porcelain 2.5[4]
Potassium 0.86[4]
Praseodymium 6.77[4]
PTFE (teflon) 2.19[4]
PVC 1.39[4]
PVDF 1.77[4]
Quartz min. 2.5[4]
Quartz max. 2.8[4]
Rhenium 21.02[4]
Rhodium 12.41[4]
Rubidium 1.532[4]
Ruthenium 12.45[4]
Salt 2.2[4]
Samarium 7.52[4]
Sand, silica 2.6[4]
Sand, Quartz 7[4]
Sandstone min. 2[4]
Sandstone max. 2.6[4]
Sawdust 0.15[4]
Selenium 4.28[4]
Scandium 2.989[4]
Serpentine min. 2.7[4]
Selenium 4.8[4]
Serpentine max. 2.8[4]
Sialon 3.26[4]
Silica aerogel 0.11[4]
Silicon 2.33[4]
Silicon carbide 3.1[4]
Silicon nitride 3.2[4]
Silver 10.5[4]
Silver, German 8.58[4]
Slate 2.8[4]
Soapstone 2.7[4]
Sodium 0.968[4]
Soil (Typical) 2.65
Steatite beads 2.6 - 2.7[4]
Steel, 440C stainless 7.7[4]
Steel, carbon 7.8[4]
Steel, chrome 7.8[4]
Steel, cold-drawn 7.83[4]
Steel, machine 7.8[4]
Steel, tool 7.70 - 7.73[4]
Strontium 2.64[4]
Sulfur 2[4]
Talc min. 2.6[4]
Talc max. 2.8[4]
Tantalium 16.69[4]
Tar, bituminous 1.2[4]
Tellurium min. 6[4]
Tellurium max. 6.24[4]
Thallium 11.85[4]
Thorium 11.7[4]
Thulium 9.32[4]
Tile 1.8[4]
Tin 7.31[4]
Tin ore, cassiterite 6.4 - 7.0[4]
63 Sn & 37 Pb 8.42[4]
10 Sn & 90 Pb 10.5[4]
Titanium 4.506[4]
Titanium dioxide, Anatase 3.77[4]
Trap rock 3[4]
Tungsten 19.22[4]
Tungsten carbide 14.29[4]
Uranium 18.8[4]
Vanadium 5.96[4]
Vermiculite 0.13[4]
Vinyl ester 1.8[4]
Water 1.0[4]
White metal 7.3[4]
Wood, balsa 0.16[4]
Wood, oak 0.7[4]
Wood, white pine 0.5[4]
Wood, felt 0.3[4]
Wood, loose 0.1[4]
Wool 1.32[4]
Ytterbium 6.97[4]
Yttrium 4.47[4]
Zinc, cast-rolled 6.9 - 7.2[4]
Zinc blend min 3.9[4]
Zinc blend max 4.2[4]
Zinc min. 6.9[4]
Zinc max. 7.2[4]
Zirconium 6.506[4]
Zirconium silicate 3.85[4]

References[edit]

  1. International Maritime Organisation, International Maritime Solid Bulk Cargoes Code, 2013 Edition, London: International Maritime Organization.
  2. Modified Proctor/Fagerberg Method for Coal, 24 November 2014. (Download PDF)
  3. International Maritime Organisation, MSC 95/3/Add.1 - Amendments to the International Maritime Solid Bulk Cargoes Code (IMSBC Code), 26 January 2015, London. (Download PDF)
  4. 4.000 4.001 4.002 4.003 4.004 4.005 4.006 4.007 4.008 4.009 4.010 4.011 4.012 4.013 4.014 4.015 4.016 4.017 4.018 4.019 4.020 4.021 4.022 4.023 4.024 4.025 4.026 4.027 4.028 4.029 4.030 4.031 4.032 4.033 4.034 4.035 4.036 4.037 4.038 4.039 4.040 4.041 4.042 4.043 4.044 4.045 4.046 4.047 4.048 4.049 4.050 4.051 4.052 4.053 4.054 4.055 4.056 4.057 4.058 4.059 4.060 4.061 4.062 4.063 4.064 4.065 4.066 4.067 4.068 4.069 4.070 4.071 4.072 4.073 4.074 4.075 4.076 4.077 4.078 4.079 4.080 4.081 4.082 4.083 4.084 4.085 4.086 4.087 4.088 4.089 4.090 4.091 4.092 4.093 4.094 4.095 4.096 4.097 4.098 4.099 4.100 4.101 4.102 4.103 4.104 4.105 4.106 4.107 4.108 4.109 4.110 4.111 4.112 4.113 4.114 4.115 4.116 4.117 4.118 4.119 4.120 4.121 4.122 4.123 4.124 4.125 4.126 4.127 4.128 4.129 4.130 4.131 4.132 4.133 4.134 4.135 4.136 4.137 4.138 4.139 4.140 4.141 4.142 4.143 4.144 4.145 4.146 4.147 4.148 4.149 4.150 4.151 4.152 4.153 4.154 4.155 4.156 4.157 4.158 4.159 4.160 4.161 4.162 4.163 4.164 4.165 4.166 4.167 4.168 4.169 4.170 4.171 4.172 4.173 4.174 4.175 4.176 4.177 4.178 4.179 4.180 4.181 4.182 4.183 4.184 4.185 4.186 4.187 4.188 4.189 4.190 4.191 4.192 4.193 4.194 4.195 4.196 4.197 4.198 4.199 4.200 4.201 4.202 4.203 4.204 4.205 4.206 4.207 4.208 4.209 4.210 4.211 4.212 4.213 4.214 4.215 4.216 4.217 4.218 4.219 4.220 4.221 4.222 4.223 4.224 4.225 4.226 4.227 4.228 4.229 4.230 4.231 4.232 4.233 4.234 4.235 4.236 4.237 4.238 4.239 4.240 4.241 4.242 4.243 4.244 4.245 4.246 4.247 4.248 4.249 4.250 4.251 4.252 4.253 4.254 4.255 4.256 http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/specific-gravity-solids-metals-d_293.html
  5. Munro, M. and A. Mohajerani, Determination of Transportable Moisture Limit of Iron Ore Fines for the Prevention of Liquefaction in Bulk Carriers. Marine Structures, 2015. 40(1): p. 193-224.

See Also[edit]

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