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Porosity (n) is the ratio of the volume of voids to the total volume. Porosity is usually expressed as a percentage[1].


The following equation can be used to determine the porosity of a soil or solid bulk cargo:



n = porosity,
e = void ratio,
Vv = volume of voids,
Vs = volume of solids and
Vt = total volume.

You can also use the calculator provided on the main site by clicking the following link:


Description of Values[edit]

A description of sand based on porosity and relative density is given below[1].

Porosity, n (%) Relative Density, Dr (%) Description
100-80 0-20 Very loose
80-60 20-40 Loose
60-30 40-70 Medium Dense or Firm
30-15 70-85 Dense
<15 85-100 Very Dense


  1. 1.0 1.1 Budhu, M. (2011). Soil mechanics and foundations, 3rd edition. New York: Wiley.

See Also[edit]

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